If the beneficiaries tell us clearly, as they did, time and again in Goma, that what they needed was cash, why did aid agencies persist in giving them goods? The fear of giving money is almost pathological among aid agencies, even though, or maybe because, it would be simpler and cheaper to give than any other form of help. … But perhaps the aid community could be radical and say that people, especially adults, have a right to misuse their cash. While there may be genuine and well-founded fears around cash aid, there is only one real conclusion to be drawn: we do not believe what we say about working for the beneficiaries and responding to their expressed needs. Markets quickly reopened after the eruption, and supplies of vegetables and fruit were soon re-established. info@virungaparkcongo.com, Become an Agent The Mount Nyiragongo eruption on 17 January 2002 destroyed a large part of the centre of Goma, a busy commercial centre in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Mount Nyiragongo in Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, is dangerously close to the city of Goma. Or that the unpaid intermediary, called a ‘volunteer’ because agencies would not pay him, not because he really volunteered, was going to make sure he got paid one way or another? The other volcanoes include Mount Karisimbi, Mount Bisoke, Mount Muhabura, Mount Sabyinyo, Mount Mikeno, Mount Gahinga and mount Nyamuragira. Eventually, some of this was done. Many UN and NGO bodies, though often themselves affected by the destruction (UNICEF lost a warehouse full of medicines and school supplies worth $700,000), were already in place in Goma, and several new agencies came in to help. Yet aid workers persisted in treating people like children who could not be trusted with their pocket money. This includes the times when the eruptions were continuous for a long time in a year, often in the form of a churning lava lake in the crater. by Barry Sesnan, UNDP November 2004 The Mount Nyiragongo eruption on 17 January 2002 destroyed a large part of the centre of Goma, a busy commercial centre in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). That eruption was also marked by columns of erupted ash and long fluid lava flows, some of which are apparent in the image as dark greyish swaths radiating away from Nyamuragira. Strange Facts about Mount Nyiragongo: Mountain Nyiragongo in the Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo is an active volcano which last erupted in 2002. In October 2001, another volcanic tremor was felt in the region followed by another in January 2002 and this was … It’s hidden in the depths of Mount Nyiragongo and hikers must trek up … For over a week before Nyiragongo erupted, local people felt tremors and small earthquakes. 30 m height at intervals of 30 seconds, according to the observatory. An estimated 80,000 people – about 16,000 households – became homeless, and a very large number lost their workplace, their employment and their income, as well as assets and savings. Money does not even have to be given free (though the food, pots and sheets were). A Congolese vulcanologist predicted the eruption of the volcano that has devastated the city of Goma and raised the alarm, it has emerged. The Sphere Project, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, revised edition, 2004. In particular, a huge school rebuilding programme generated budgets, employment and an explosion of small workshops making desks and chairs. For this major and crucial need, only cash would do. If it circulates in the economy somewhere then it is doing its job. It has erupted about 34 times since 1882 and the last eruption was recently in 2002. But in the first days of the response, as the ‘aid machine’ swung into action, this was not even discussed. A significant population did find it difficult and temporary camps grew up in some of the untouched schools and church compounds, which later had to be evacuated as a major effort was made to restart education. Published. After a week or so, discussions began around rebuilding and the term ‘relancement de l’économie’ entered the vocabulary; I travelled to Nairobi to meet representatives of Habitat, UNESCO and the International Labour Organisation (ILO), and UNDP sent an expert in income-generating activities, but no one was able to respond with the requisite urgency, and some of the projects discussed never happened. Mount Nyiragongo Democratic Republic of the Congo. The steep slopes of a stratovolcano contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira. The Mount Nyiragongo has erupted in the years of 1884,1894,1898,1900,1977,1982,1994 to 1996 and 2002 in May which was the last year there was an active eruption at the volcano. Located inside Virunga National Park about 20 km. Nyiragongo's intra-crater lava flows last week, cascading into the main lava lake (image: João Cunha Monteiro /facebook) The new vent inside the crater of Nyiragongo remains very active, producing pulsating lava fountains of approx. Houses for rent were available, and those who had money rented rooms and space towards the west of the town. Another crater lake has been formed a few meters the one formed in 1994. The case for cash: Goma after the Nyiragongo eruption, The humanitarian situation and response in the OPT, The humanitarian crisis in the occupied Palestinian territory: an overview, Protection, occupation and International Humanitarian Law in the OPT, International humanitarian aid to the Palestinians, The search for truth: human rights documentation in the war of representation, The international politics of aid in the occupied Palestinian territory, Humanitarian response in the occupied Palestinian territory: a donor perspective, Why humanitarian assistance is not a long-term solution in the OPT, Food security in the occupied Palestinian territory, The communications revolution in the Palestinian territories, Private military companies: a word of caution, Cost-recovery in the health sector: continuing the debate, Developing micro-enterprise in refugee camps: ARC’s experience in West Africa, Where there is no information: IDP vulnerability in Sri Lanka’s ‘uncleared’ areas, Developing minimum standards for education in emergencies, User-managed public health promotion in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. It’s hidden in the depths of Mount Nyiragongo and hikers must trek up to an altitude of about 11,400ft (3.47km) to catch a glimpse of the lava lake. The last eruption that occurred in Mount Nyiragongo was on the 17 th of January 2002 when lava spewed to three sides of the volcano ejecting smoke and ash high in the sky. Then on 6 th February 2001, the neighboring Volcano, Mount Nyamuragira erupted for 2 weeks. This is also home to the critically endangered mountain gorillas and their dense tropical forest habitat, who range among the six "dormant" volcanoes in DRC's Virunga National Park. Nyiragongo Volcano (Democratic Republic of Congo) Tuesday 29th January 2002 1. The depth of the lava lake varies considerably. What they needed was not commodities but cash. Dropping $20 notes from a helicopter would stimulate trade and save an awful lot of food transport costs. The aid response, both by the UN and NGOs, focused on this loss of shelter, and defined entitlement to assistance according to its loss. The Nyiragongo active volcano is one of Congo’s major tourist attractions. Its 2002 eruption killed 50 people and forced roughly 450,000 people to evacuate their communities. Its fell down the slopes of the volcano at about 60 miles per hour and went into the nearby villages killing over 70 people. It is arguable that losses would be no less than they are in massive food distributions. Mount Nyiragongo Mount Nyiragongo is a steep sided active stratovolcano at an elevation of 3,470m in the Virunga range, Albertine region located in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Could it be that we were satisfying our needs as organisations, rather than people’s needs as beneficiaries? Eruption: Mount Nyiragongo is one of the most active volcanoes in the world that have a number of 34 recorded eruption times the last eruption that was recorded happened in 2016. G. Saunders, Housing, Lives and Livelihoods: Lessons in Post-Disaster Assistance from Goma, unpublished case study, 2002. Large fissures have developed along the slopes of Mount Nyiragongo, prompting fears that lava and toxic gases could be released and cause even more damage than the last eruption. The views and opinions expressed in HPN publications do not necessarily state or reflect those of HPG or ODI. Carlo de Hennin and Patricia Kormoss, Independent Evaluation of DEC Goma Crisis Appeal (Aachen: GFE Consulting, March 2003), http://www.dec.org.uk/uploads/documents/DEC_Report_1_doc.pdf; and http://www.dec.org.uk/uploads/documents/Goma_Evaluation_Report_-Vol_II_Annexes.pdf. On Monday 12 July 2004, at 05:30 UTC, Meteosat-8 observed an eruption of the Nyiragongo volcano. It was the first eruption of Mount Nyiragongo since 1977, when lava flows killed almost 2,000 people in less than half an hour. Why did aid agencies ignore all their rhetoric about responding to the needs of people, and just give what they thought the people needed, not what they said they wanted? Perhaps goods should have been given only to women, as at one point UNICEF had decided to do, or only to children, or only through churches. David Peppiatt, John Mitchell and Penny Holzmann, Cash Transfers in Emergencies: Evaluating Benefits and Assessing Risks, Network Paper 35 (London: ODI, 2001). The crater presently has two distinct cooled lava bencheswithin the crater walls – one at abo… Mount Nyiragongo. Mount Nyiragongo, active volcano in the Virunga Mountains of east-central Africa. In January 2002, fast-flowing basalt lava, (1,000 kilometres wide) poured out of Mount Nyiragongo and into the city of Goma. The town is a busy commercial centre, a hive of economic activity and the main point of entry for goods from the outside world for much of eastern Congo. The economic activity which the programme revived, based on carpenters and builders, sent a buzz through the whole town and demonstrated clearly what a difference the reintroduction of wages made to the economy. It was no secret that they were going to sell the goods, and that the ensuing flood of cheap aluminium pots or plastic sheets would debase the local market and make things worse for small traders. Twice in recent history, Nyiragongo has had two devastating volcanic eruptions, the first related to the lava lake, while the second from a deadly eruption off the flank of the volcano. The 2002 Eruption – Nyiragongo last eruption. Located in the Eastern part of the country and overlooking the Virunga national park, Nyiragongo volcano is one of the 8 volcanoes within the Virunga conservation region. In 2002, the last time Nyiragongo volcano erupted, lava raced down its flanks into the crowded city of Goma, on the border between the Democratic Republic of … Most Recent Eruptions Recorded: 1884, 1894, 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1905, 1906, 1908 (? 17 March 2017. But the most damaging loss was not to people’s homes, but to their livelihoods. The world`s largest active lava lake has become eminent since 1960`s and 70`s depending on various studies about Nyiragongo volcanic mountain from volcanologists like Kraffts and Tazieff. In 1977, the walls of the lava lake were cracked and the lava was drained in less than an hour. The people of Goma were clearly right: only the flexibility of cash could solve all the various problems facing them. And that was the one thing aid agencies would not, indeed could not, give. Pay Online, Home » Information » Strange Facts about Mount Nyiragongo. The city centre of the Goma town, the capital of the East Virunga province, had been destroyed by voluninous lava flows. It is located inside Virunga National Park, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, about 20 km (12 mi) north of the town of Goma and Lake Kivu and just west of the border with Rwanda. In comparing the cases of the most recent eruption of Mount Nyiragongo - three years ago now - against last year's Indian Ocean tsunami, fire … Mount Nyiragongo, located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, erupted today (January 17, 2002), ejecting a large cloud of smoke and ash high into the sky and spewing lava down three sides of the volcano. Families were made to line up for hours to collect meticulously counted and packaged items, and the length of the procedure alone led to frustration, and ultimately to temptation and impersonation. No lorries or stores are needed, and the logistics are certainly simpler. Although the lava flow ended a few days after Jan. 17, it could recur at any time. ... Up Next, BBC team caught in Mount Etna eruption. Mount Nyiragongo Volcano is the very last stop of every hiker’s volcano remarkable tour of Virunga National Park (a region that should always be included to any trip to Democratic Republic Of Congo). Homes, schools, churches and businesses were ruined. Mount Nyiragongo is one of the most active volcanoes in the world, erupting on average every 30 years. Complex justifications are developed. The last activity started in June 1994. Who could ever tell that someone had gone round twice, or that a family was represented at three different distribution points? Mount Nyiragongo is located roughly 10 km (6 miles) north of the town of Goma, near the Congo’s border with Rwanda. This 2002 eruption started with a few signs in December 2000 where there were a few earthquakes/ volcanic tremors in the region that were prolonged. This became a problem in itself, as agencies had become used to the convenience of doing distributions inside a compound, and were reluctant to stop supporting people in the schools. There is abundant evidence from around the globe that post-disaster economies revive quickly if everyone has a little money to spend. HISTORICAL ERUPTIONS OF MOUNT NYIRAGONGO VOLCANO DR.CONGO – VIRUNGA PARK. +250 780 870 670 It lies in the volcano region of Virunga National Park, Congo (Kinshasa), near the border with Rwanda, 12 miles (19 km) north of Goma.It is 11,385 feet (3,470 metres) high, with a main crater 1.3 miles (2 km) wide and 820 feet (250 metres) deep containing a liquid lava pool. Why, then, did agencies continue to supply these items, even when it was obvious that they had become currency, and a debased one at that, as the continuing supply of new sheets and pots reduced their sale value to virtually zero and impoverished the people who normally sold them? All material © 2020 Humanitarian Practice Network. Copyright © 2020 Virunga National Park Congo, 5 Days Ngila Classic without Nyiragongo package, 7 Days Kahuzi Biega and Virunga National Park, 5 Days Virunga Gorilla & Volcanoes Golden Monkey Trekking, 5 Days Virunga Gorilla & Akagera Wildlife Tour, Travel Guide for Gorilla Trekking in Virunga National Park, African Golden Cat sighted in Virunga National Park Congo, Newborn baby gorilla in Virunga National Park, Eastern Lowland Gorilla Families in Kauzi Biega National Park. The eruption of Nyiragongo on 17/18 January 2002 led to a massive international response following the spontaneous and temporary evacuation of 400,000 people from the city of … Why was there was such a gulf between what aid agencies were giving and what people needed to allow them to return to everyday life and livelihoods – something which they very clearly said they wanted? Homes, schools, churches and businesses were ruined. New aid workers are warned by older and wiser colleagues never to give cash to beneficiaries. On January 17th, Mount Nyiragongo, just north of Lake Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) erupted. Nyamuragira last erupted in February and March 2001. Here are some of the other facts you may need to know about this mountain. Its eruption in 2002 caused widespread devastation. Blog For Us This is … There was no immediate danger of starvation. In locations where the gas seeps from the ground in relatively high levels, without the dispersing effects of wind, its effects can be deadly. 200,000 people were left homeless, adding to the human desaster caused by frequent civil wars. Monitoring DR Congo's deadly Nyiragongo volcano. Video, 00:00:24 BBC team caught in Mount Etna eruption. The larger Nyamuragira Volcano is located roughly 13 miles (21 km) to the north of Nyiragongo. After a few days, a system of joint UN and NGO coordination ‘commissions’ was well in place, notably for health, education and child protection, and food and non-food aid. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. Yet, much of the damage could have been prevented. Primary Effects. HPN is run by the Humanitarian Policy Group (HPG) which is part of the Overseas Development Institute (ODI). People can then spend it according to their own priorities and needs, something which the aid world claims to support, and which is specifically mentioned in all its manuals and seminars. : the lava presented an immediate hazard to human life (( link with social impacts )) environmental ECONOMIC EFFECTS The Impacts of the 2002 Nyiragongo Eruption SOCIAL (contd.) Mount Nyiragongo /ˌnɪərəˈɡɒŋɡoʊ/ is an active stratovolcano with an elevation of 3,470 m (11,380 ft) in the Virunga Mountains associated with the Albertine Rift. North of Goma, Mount Nyiragongo is currently still active, its last deadly eruption taking 147 lives in 2002. The main crater is about two kilometres (1 mi) wide and usually contains a lava lake. Nyiragongo's lava lake is found at a maximum elevation of 3250m (pre-disaster), inside a 3465m tall stratovolcano ; the lava lake has an estimated depth of 600m and contains one of the most fluid lavas on Earth. There was overwhelming evidence that, within a day or two, the only value of another plastic sheet or another cooking-pot was in its sale. Dieudonne Wafula, who has spent years studying the volcano on Mount Nyiragongo, sent urgent e-mails to experts around the world one week before the lava began flowing on 17 January. Work projects could have satisfied the work ethic. It is not fully know how many times this mountain has erupted but since the year 1882, this volcano has erupted about 34 times. Would the misuse of money in Goma have been any worse than the misuse of goods? Since 1882 Mt Nyiragongo has erupted 34 times including many periods where activity was continuous for years at a time, often in the form of a churning lava lake in the crater, volcano overlaps with two older volcanoes, Baratu and Shaheru, and is also surrounded by hundreds of small volcanic cinder cones from different eruptions, lava lake activity continued through 2010. Its lava lake is most known for its volcanic activity in the recent times. The Santa María Volcano, which sits right above the city of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, has been continuously erupting since 2003. ), … 2 days volcano hike to the top and back to the base with an overnight at the peak of then . Surprisingly, even the need for shelter was not as bad as feared, as most of the 80,000 displaced people moved in with relatives for the first few days. Some, like the fear of setting a precedent, might be more plausible than others, like ‘they’ll just spend it’ or ‘they’ll misuse it’. Goma is well supplied with food, which is normally quite cheap; the problem was the money to buy it with. Though Mount Nyamuragira doesn’t offer any hiking opportunities, the neighboring Nyiragongo volcano is a perfect option. The volcano a few years later in 2010 showed some signs of an eruption but it did not happen until date today in 2020. The hazards posed by eruptions like this are unique to Nyiragongo. Mount Nyiragongo is in Virunga National Park and is of Africa's most active volcanoes. Nevertheless, it was abundantly clear that, after the eruption, the one thing the people of Goma needed was money. Exactly the same problems of identification and duplication would have occurred. On January 17, 2002, Nyiragongo erupted and the lava lake drained from fissures on its western flanks. It lies in the Congo, close to the border with Rwanda (Goma – Gisenyi Border). Lava Shot Down the Mountain at 60mph in 1977. Yet the aid community in Goma continued to hold to some moral high ground about giving cash. A maximum elevation of the lava lake was recorded at about 3,250 m (10,660 ft) prior to the January 1977 eruption – a lake depth of about 600 m (2,000 ft). The Nyiragongo volcano is one of eight in DRC along the border with Rwanda. Just after six months of the 2002 eruption, this volcano erupted again. The volcanic activity at this mountain is still going on but still only in the crater. He is currently working for UNDP in Ituri, DRC. FAQs Hard for Trekkers to Reach. Mount Nyiragongo has got the world’s largest lava lake and also the most active. Mount Nyiragongo is a highly active volcano in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 500 km 500 mi - The Could the clue be in the agency stickers plastering every aid vehicle in Goma, and the agency logos everywhere? +256 701 703 573 There was a lot of lava to clear from the airport runway, for instance; there were roads to be reopened. Despite this, agencies gave food, and the addition of food aid to the market depressed prices and impoverished those who were already selling in the market. As aid responses go, Goma was not badly served. Family kits, providing household items, were important and greatly needed, but everything in the kit could be bought in Goma. 13km fissure southern flank more than 11 million cubic metres of lava basaltic lava 90 km/hr . Localized carbon dioxide toxicity, known locally as ‘mazuku’, has killed children even more recently. 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